Calluses and Corns:

Underlying bone problems can cause excessive irritation.  Where shoes repeatedly rub, dead skin cells pile up, creating calluses on the bottom of the foot and corns on the toes.



Hammertoes:  Produced by a tendon imbalance which causes the end joints of one or two (or more) or more smaller toes to bend down while the closer joints bend up. Another cause may be Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome.



Bunions:  Painful when the bursa sack becomes inflamed from irritation caused by spreading of the forefoot, pronation, supination or imbalance.



Planter Neuroma:  A nerve growth that often accompanies metatarsalgia. It develops when the nerve between to metatarsal heads are pinched and bruised. Symptom: A burning numbness or electric shock sensation in the ball of the foot caused by tight shoes repeated impacts of jolts to the forefoot or by a dropped metatarsal arch.


Heel Pain:  A chronic inflammation of the plantar fasciia, a ligament-like structure that passes from the heel to forefoot.  The inflammation is caused by the fasciia partially pulling away from the heel.  A bone spur-which may or may not cause pain-can also develop here, caused by excessive heel rotation, excessive heel pounding, longitudinal arch weakness, and/or stretched plantar muscles.